Charles Louis de Secondat was born in Bordeaux, France, in 1689 to a wealthy family. Despite his family’s wealth, de Decondat was placed in the care of a poor family during his childhood. He later went to college and studied science and history, eventually becoming a lawyer in the local government. Charles’s father died in 1713 and he was taken care by his uncle Baron De Montesquieu, the president of the Bordeaux parliament. When the Baron died, he left Secondat his fortune, the office of the president and his title Baron De Montesquieu
Later, he was the member of Bordeaux and French academics of science. He studied the laws, customs and government of the countries of Europe.
Secodant became famous by his famous Persian letters in 1721 which criticised the lifestyle and liberties of wealthy people and even the Church. The greatest work of writing by Montesquieu was on the spirit of laws (1748) which outlined his idea that how a government should work.
Montesquieu’s idea of the best government was the ‘seperation of powers’ in which three branches of government has equal but different powers. He wrote “when the law making and law enforcement power lies in the same person, there can be no Liberty.” According to him, each branch of the government should be inter-controllable so that no branch could threaten the Liberty of the people. This idea of constitution by Montesquieu, later, went on to become the basis of the constitution of United States of America
“Government should be set up so that no man fears another”
The period between 1861-1865 saw the largest and most destructive conflict in the Western world between the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the onset of World War I in 1914 – The American civil war. This war, that was triggered at fort Sumter on 12 April, 1861, cost more than 625,000 lives (nearly as many American soldier died in other wars combined).
The war was based on, as many of the wars were, uncompromising differences between the slave and the free. When Abraham Lincoln took charge for the president of the USA, he seceded(the historic term for withdrawal) seven slave states in the deep south and asked them to form a new country (Confederates States of America) apart from USA to keep slavery away from the other territories. However, most of the northern people refused to this secession as they thought it could effect the country and break United States into several small, squabbling territories and even more, ‘discredit’ democracy’
The war was triggered when Lincoln tried to suppress the ‘insurrection’ (violent uprise against an authority) that happened in fort Sumter and seceded four more states in the confederacy. The war’s fire burnt so drastically that by the end of 1861, nearly a million armed men confronted each other along a line stretching 1200 miles from Virginia to Missouri
The statue of Liberty or La Liberté éclairant le monde as as they say in France, is a neoclassical sculpture on Liberty island on New York Harbor, New York city, USA. It was a gift from the people of France to the people of United States during the American revolution on October 28, 1886. The idea of sculpture was monumented by Email De Laboulaye and sculpted by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
The Statue of Liberty is a figure of a robed woman representing Libertas, a Roman goddess. She holds a torch above her head(depicted as showing us the path to Liberty), and in her left arm carries a tabula ansata(Latin word for tablet with handles) inscribed in Roman numerals with “JULY IV MDCCLXXVI” (July 4, 1776), the date of the U.S. declaration of independence. A broken chain lies at her feet.
The statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, and was a welcoming sight to immigrants arriving from abroad.
The seven spikes of the crown represent the seven continents and oceans of the world and indicate the universal liberty
The term “imperialism” refers to a policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization or use of military force/other means.
The period between 1870 and 1914 saw a Europe that was considerably more stable than that of previous decades. To a large extent this was the product of the formation of new states in Germany and Italy, and political reformations in older, established states, such as Britain and Austria. This internal stability, along with the technological advances of the industrial revolution, meant that European states were increasingly able and willing to pursue political power abroad.
However imperialism isn’t the word to describe the title of 19th century as many number of European states, most notably Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands, had carved out large overseas empires in the age of exploration.
Raisina Hill, often used as a metonym for the seat of the Government of India, is an area of Lutyens’ Delhi, New Delhi, housing India’s most important government buildings, including Rashtrapati Bhavan, the official residence of the President of India and the Secretariat building housing the Prime Minister‘s Office and several other important ministries. It is surrounded by other important buildings and structures, including the Parliament of India, Rajpath and India Gate.
In 1911 to transfer the capital of British India from Calcutta (now Kolkata) to Delhi, a planning committee was formed, and a site 3 miles (5 km) south of the existing city of Delhi, around Raisina Hill, was chosen for the new administrative centre. A well-drained, healthy area between the Delhi Ridge and the Yamuna River, it provided ample room for expansion.
The Raisina Dialogue
The Raisina Dialogue is an annual conference held in New Delhi, envisioned to be India’s flagship conference of geopolitics and geo-economics.
Yoga is not a religion; it is a way of living that aims towards ‘a healthy mind in a healthy body’.
Man is a physical, mental and spiritual being; yoga helps promote a balanced development of all the three. Other forms of physical exercises, like aerobics, assure only physical well-being. They have little to do with the development of the spiritual or astral body.
Yogic exercises recharge the body with cosmic energy and facilitates:
Attainment of perfect equilibrium and harmony
Promotes self- healing.
Removes negative blocks from the mind and toxins from the body
Enhances personal power
Helps in attention, focus and concentration, especially important for children
Reduces stress and tension in the physical body by activating the parasympathetic nervous system
The aspirant feels rejuvenated and energized. Thus, yoga bestows upon every aspirant the powers to control body and mind.
According to Hindu traditional belief that Lord Shiva is the ruler of all dancers. He was a specialist in the thandava style of moving. This is an overwhelming masculine style of moving. This shiv tandav stotra is about him while in the demonstration of moving. Similar sounding word usage and likeness in sound make annoying floods of reverberating magnificence in this incredible stotra.
This stotra which is so superb was created by none other than Ravana, the evil presence ruler, who ruled over Sri Lanka, who was one of the great devotees of Lord Shiva. Once the glad Ravana vanquished the whole India and drew nearer Mount Kailas on top of which Lord Shiva lives with his consort Goddess Parvathi.
Ravana called Lord Shiva to descend. When he didn’t, he evacuated the mountain with his twenty hands. This made Goddess Parvathi unsteady. At that point Lord Shiva pushed down the mountain with his thumb. Ravana was smashed by the heaviness of the mountain. There he adulated Lord Shiva by singing the Sama Veda and this extraordinary stotra made by him. Ruler Shiva was pleased andpardoned him.